Aspects of rice cultivation in Punjab, India

The present study was conducted with a view to bring out various aspects of rice cultivation in Punjab,India. The study has been based on the sample of 100 rice growers spreading over five districts of the state during 2008-09. The dominant variety PR-106 has lost importance and became out dated over the years. The cultivation of Pusa-44 has increased from merely 16.6 per cent in 1991-92 to as high as 35.2 per cent in 2008-09. The gross return from per hectare production of rice was Rs. 54585. The total variable cost of cultivation per hectare was Rs. 17657, leaving behind Rs. 36927 as returns over variable costs from rice cultivation in sample growers. The regression analysis indicated that there existed scope for further increase in the use of insecticides/pesticides, manures/fertilizers and irrigation for improving the yield of rice in Punjab. The problem of occurrence of stem borer was 'moderate' for 51.6 per cent of rice growers as per their perceptions. Bacterial blight and false smut were the major diseases for rice crop accounting for about 6.3 and 2.7 per cent of rice area, respectively. The problem of weeds, as experienced by the rice growers was not very serious. Timely planting, use proper plant protection measures and providing irrigation at the right time were the most desired practices at the farmers own level for yield improvement by rice growers.

Author : D.K. Grover