Characterization of rice (Oryza sativa L.) landraces and cultivars using agro morphological traits

A set of 152 rice genotypes comprising of landraces, traditional varieties, exotic lines, cultures and released varieties collected from nine different states of India as well as from nine countries were evaluated for 12 agro-morphological traits by principal component analysis for determining the pattern of genetic diversity and relationship among individuals. The largest variation was observed for the trait single plant yield with CV of 39.52% followed by single panicle sterile seed (35.41%) and single panicle fertile seed (29.34%). The trait panicle length exhibited the least variation with the CV of 14.86%. Principal component analysis revealed four significant principal components and accounted for a cumulative variation of 74.90%. The first principal component accounted for 34.97 %, second for 19.56%, third for 10.55% and fourth for 9.81% of total variation. Biplot exhibited convex of the hull which was occupied by the genotypes namely TKM3, ADT 47, CO 39, Nootripathu, Veeradangan, Cult 3000 and T1035 as these genotypes were exhibited highest level of variation. They can be used as diverse parents in crossing programme. Traits namely culm thickness, panicle length, days to heading, flag leaf length, plant height, width of flag leaf were discriminated the genotypes in higher degree. Cluster anlaysis identified five distinct groups among 152 genotypes which can be utilized for the trait improvement breeding programme.